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Federalist Tigray and unitarian Amhara have been historical rivals in the daunting task of state-building in Ethiopia. To neutralize Tigray and its de facto federalism (1872–89), Amhara found a formidable ally in Italy, which colluded with Britian to have “a place in the sun.” Amhara rewarded Italy with half of Tigray, which was christened “Eritrea,” and imposed the unitarian system in the country. Worse still, in the middle of the 1950s, Amhara annexed the western and southern parts of Tigray. Tigray and Eritrea (which returned to Ethiopia in 1952) were suffocated by amharanization and political centralization, the twin pillars of the unitarian system.

Military insurgencies brought the system to an end in 1991 and the Tigrayans who assumed the reins of power introduced de jure federalism, to the chagrin of the Amhara. The paper offers a critical historical analysis of state-building and state-destroying in Ethiopia, with particular attention given to the Amhara return to power in 2018 and humanity’s newest genocide in Tigray.

Deciphering why man, the “rational animal”, annihilates members of his own species is a daunting task, especially when the victims are core people of a polity much like the Tigrayans in Ethiopia. Depending on primary and secondary sources such as travelers’ accounts, reports of official delegates, diplomatic correspondences, books by military and political officers, contemporary intellectuals and research-
ers, and media outlets, the paper delves into the state-building process in Ethiopia to determine if past intercommunal relations could shed light on the road to the Tigray tragedy—humanity’s most recent genocide.

Vilifying people as “parasites,” “bloodsuckers,” and “evil creatures” (Nazis to Jews), “traitors” (Ittihadists to Armenians), “stinking brute” and “detestable” (Khemer Rouge to urban dwellers, intellectuals as well as religious and ethnic minorities), “cockroaches” and “snakes” (Interahamwe to Tutsi), and “dogs” (Serbs
to Bosniaks) are all dehumanizing terms historically applied in genocidal situations.

Similarly, calling Tigrayans “daytime hyenas,” “cancer,” “tumor,” and “weeds” freed the Amhara perpetrators to banish their Tigrayan victims from the human family and annihilate them. They explicitly vowed to “wipe [them]out” and “destroy” them. To rob Tigrayans of their last vestige of human dignity, the perpetrators weaponized rape. They manufactured and weaponized famine. Encouraged by the willful
silence of the international community, actively backed by the Amhara bystanders, and blessed by the powerful Orthodox Church, the perpetrators have hitherto killed more than a million Tigrayans. As this article goes to press, in Southern and Western Tigray as well as Northern and Eastern Tigray, which are still occupied by the Amhara and Eritrean perpetrators respectively, the Tigrayan youth continue to
disappear. Further, famine, as a mechanism of genocide, continues to kill people relentlessly. The clearly articulated intent and the actions (some videotaped) of the Amhara and Eritrean perpetrators have been to annihilate the Tigrayans entirely or at least to make them inconsequential in the socio-political and economic landscape of the Horn of Africa.

It is a textbook genocide.

Yet, the progression of events that occurred between the ascendancy of Abiy Ahmed to power in April 2018 and the declaration of a genocidal war by Ethiopia and its partners—United Arab Emirates, Somalia, and Eritrea, against Tigray on November 4, 2020, requires a proper context. Identifying the links and missing-links in the state-building process can illuminate why a genocide has occurred in the very
cradle of Ethiopia’s 3000-year-old history/mythology.

By aiga

  1. Taking Action to Safeguard Our territories and ensuring an early return of all displaced Tigrayans: Moving Beyond Words says:

    It is vital for all Tigrayans to show their dedication to protecting entire land of Tigray against attacks from Fannos and mercenray eritrean army during these trying times. While expressing one’s patriotism is important, it is also crucial to put one’s efforts and zeal into practice rather than relying only on mere words.
    if peaceful conversation and negotiation remain unyielding , adequate measures should be taken by the ENDF according to the peace agreement .Giving people who occupy Tigrayan territories more time may unintentionally increase their grasp while gradually weakening standing of Tigray . Tigrayan leaders thus act quickly and cooperatively, using diplomatic techniques to retake control in a way that protects the integrity of all land taken by fanno genociders.Fannos are Proxy warriors, instigators and Puppeteers who can’t directly engaging in confrontations, they manipulate situations to trigger conflicts and grab land by genociding children , elders and women .

    Tegaru may demonstrate their commitment to the cause while also empowering themselves by moving decisively toward resolution. Remembering that deeds speak louder than words will helpTigray to pursue justice with tenacity, which will not only achieve the restoration of Tigrayan territories but also encourage others to support the same cause. Don’t forget that amhara synod members will cooperate with fanno as usual to reclaim and consolidate their ecclesiastical territory, parish church, like abba Diokorios or other, and they will steadfastly provide financial support to fanno to help strengthen their good grasps of western Tigray diocese, which they refer to as part of amhara fandox church territory or property and through which they generate a sizable income. Amhara Church makes significant financial contributions to maintain their revenue stream. Tigrayans are dying every day from hunger and in the hands of enemies and Tigrayan leaders are waiting ENDF to save Tigrayans . How could these be trusted as they were killing Tigrayans for 2 years and some of them are supporters of fanno . These paid soldiers prioritizes their own safety over the well-being of others, displaying a lack of courage, selflessness, and dedication to their duty as a soldier. Their actions betray a mindset driven by self-interest rather than a commitment to protecting and safeguarding those in need. Unless they are working with help of TDF , it will be watching Tigrayans killed in the presence of ENDF. Tigrayans are under heavy presence of armed and unarmed fannos who are constantly smuggled in to western Tigray on a daily basis and showing their satanic tactics which people call demographic engineering. Demographic engineering, population manipulation, or population invasion are terms used to describe the practice of smuggling people into a country in order to change its demographics and perhaps claim territory by individuals or groups from elsewhere. All have to be sent back where they come from!Tigray belongs to Tigrayans.

  2. በአባ ፋኑኤል የሚመራው የውግዘት የጦርነት እና የሴራ ቡድን በነገውለት ወደ ቤተትክነት ይገባል ተብሎ ይጠበቃል፤፤የተቀሩቱ ፋኖ ጳጳሳት ከነገ በስቲያ ገብተዉ ያልቃሉ፤፤የምስራቅ ፋኖ አዛዥ ምሬ ወዳጃቸው ና የፋኖ ጳጳሳት ጠቅላያቸው አስቀድሞ ውግዘቱን ቃል አስተላልፏል፤፤ያላወገዝክ ያማራ ጠላት ነህ ሲልም ጳጳሳቱን አስጠንቅቋል፤፤
    ፋኖ ዘራፊ መነኮሳይያትን አስነዋሪ ከክብር ያሳነሰ የፅንፈኛ ያረብ ደንገጡር የክርስትና ጠላት ፋኖ ይውደም ይፋርሳል ይደመሰሳል ድል ለኦነግ ይሁን እልልልልልልእልልልልልእእእእእልልልልል
    Victory to ENDF , OLA & all Oromo forces !!Viva OLA !!! shame and agony to fanno bishops !!

  3. Donot cover up the reality on the ground and misery of Tegaru by their own fellow Tegaru bandatat says:

    DEar AigaNews reporters , why are you not reporting about those former TDF members who fought hard for their own people now been killed by bandatat tegaru in various parts of Tigray ? do you just tell us about the death of one famous TDF commander ? everyone’s life is priceless regardless of his or her socio-economic status and place of birth be it Axum, Adowa, Adigrat or any other village!! Every one is most loved and honored by his family and acquaitances . Everyone is equal before God. Leave aside the propaganda of secular law and UN declaration of human right , superficial tiger paper agenda. People in Tigray are in danger not only by the presence of eritrean army or fanno but also Bandatat , criminal tegaru. It will be even difficult for our fathers , newly elected bishops aswell to move freely. Tigray was the safest land compared to other regions in Ethiopia. Now is the opposite, saddest historical instance to hand over to Tigrayan children.
    below wrtten to Tigray haters borkena and zehabesha
    Dear genius BorkenaStaff Reporters, big reverence and greetings to you all
    bow down before you !!
    The majority of people enjoy your website, but this week you have been writing garbage, gibberish, and bullshit that you made up with some idiots, oromos and amhara who love to hate TPLF, in a restaurant or Starbucks. No one can locate satisfactory professional writing, reporting, and presentation skills that are supported by evidence. It is all fiction and displays the idiosyncrasies of your persona, which is devoid of both professionalism and human qualities. Please go to a health center; if you can’t find one close, someone may be able to assist you. You experience TPLF’s spectral presence day and night and are experiencing extreme daydreaming. RIP, paranoid paranormal reporters and editors of Borkena and Zehabesha!
    PLease delete this comment as it is not embarrassing fo your reputation. RIP RIP RIP Borkena blog-stinking now

    በአባ ፋኑኤል የሚመራው የውግዘት የጦርነት እና የሴራ ቡድን በነገውለት ወደ ቤተትክነት ይገባል ተብሎ ይጠበቃል፤፤የተቀሩቱ ፋኖ ጳጳሳት ከነገ በስቲያ ገብተዉ ያልቃሉ፤፤የምስራቅ ፋኖ አዛዥ ምሬ ወዳጃቸው ና የፋኖ ጳጳሳት ጠቅላያቸው አስቀድሞ ውግዘቱን ቃል አስተላልፏል፤፤ያላወገዝክ ያማራ ጠላት ነህ ሲልም ጳጳሳቱን አስጠንቅቋል፤፤
    ፋኖ ዘራፊ መነኮሳይያትን አስነዋሪ ከክብር ያሳነሰ የፅንፈኛ ያረብ ደንገጡር የክርስትና ጠላት ፋኖ ይውደም ይፋርሳል ይደመሰሳል ድል ለኦነግ ይሁን እልልልልልልእልልልልልእእእእእልልልልል
    Victory to ENDF , OLA & all Oromo forces !!Viva OLA shame and agony to fanno bishops !!

  4. በዚ ዘለናዮ ጊዜ ዥባዕ ነገር የለንሞ ተጋሩ ብባንዳታት እናተሀረዱ ንስኹም ከመይ ይልና ነዚ ነቃልዕ እናበልኩም ናይ ሕዝብኹም መከራ አውያት ንብኧት ክት ሸፋፍኑ አይትፍትኑ እዚ ንባዕሉ ገመን ወንጀል እዩ አብ ሕዝብኩም እትፍጽምዎ ይርዳኣና እዩ አብ ሀለፍቲ ወያኔ ስልጣኖም የረክቡ የአኽሎም ሰረቅቲ ለያቡ ናይ ቲዲኤፍ ሰልዲ ስርናይን እናሰረቁ አብ ሆቴል ተሰንቂሮም ተሸጊጎም ተፍጥፈሽ ኬክ ገኧት አይስክሬም ስሪልኝ እናበሉ ህጻውንቲ ዝበልእዎ ሲኢኖም ብጥሜት ይሞቱ አለው፥፥እቲ ጌታቸው ደብረጽዮን
    አብ ደቡብ አፍሪካ ወጻኢን ዝረኣይዎ ኬክን ምግብን አብ መቀለ ስርሁልና ናይ ፕሬቶሪያ ዊስኪ መሰተ አብ ትግራይ አልሹልና እና በሉ ከምዘትክሩ የውስጥ አዋቂዎች ነግረውናል፤፤የወያኔ መሪዎች ሌባ ነው፥፥አንድ ና ብዙ ቢሆንም ለአጽንኦት ነው፤፤ምቾት አለኩም ከዚህ ቁረጥልኝ ከዚህ ጥበስ እናበልኩም ሃሳማ እና እና ሰጎኩም ከመይ ኢሉ ናይ ሰብ መከራ ይርድኣኩም ጥራይ ብሽም ሕዝብ ትግራይ ሸቅጡ ጎበዛት ብልጣብልጥ ሻርፕ ኢኹም ከም ማይካራፎን ሚዲያን ካልኦት ዘለኹም ተጋሩ ሀቀኛታት ተጋሩ ፈተውቲ አዲ ኢኹም ባንዳታት ሰረቅቲ ዝብል አይወጻናን ምን ያለበት ምን አይችልም ይላሉ መአዝ ስለናትኩም ተዛሪብና ብዛዕባ ባንዳታት ቀተልቲ ቲዲኤፍን ባንዳታት ቻናላት እምበር ንሎማኣንቲ ያኧክል በዚ ይትረፈና ይቆየን !!!

    Source: google translation and message to bandatat leyabu serekti leaders of Weyane and TPLF’s journalists like TGhat

  5. እንደናንተ ያሉ ባንዳዎች የወያኔ መሪዎች ደንገጡር የሆኑ መሣሪያቸውን ያስረከቡ እና ወደ ቀድሞ ተግባራቸው የተመለሱትን ታጋዮቻችን በቢላ እያረዱ እየዘረፉ ነው እናንተም ይህንኑ ታደርጉ ነበር ወያኔ ወደ ውጭ ስለላካቹ በዉጭ ሆናቹ እየሰረቃቹ ትኖራላቹ ኮንግራ ትግራዋይ ባንዳነት ምልክቱ ነው ሌባ ሁሉ፥፥ የወያኔ ሥርዓት ይገረሰሳል ይጠፋል ዛራ ሚዲያ የቤተክህነት ሌባ አይጥ ለማያውቁሽ ታጠኝ ይላሉ ፥፥ ልብሱን ቀይሮ የትግራይ ወዳጅ መስሎ ቀርቧል፥፥ ካማራ ጋር ሁነው ተጋሩን ሲያንገላቱ ሲዘርፉ ነበሩ እነርሱ ላይ ሲደርስባቸው ደሃው ትግራዋይ ስር ተደብቀው ለማምለጥ ይጥራሉ ፤፤ትናንት ቲግርኛ መናገር ሲያሳፍራቸው የነበሩ፤አማርኛ መናገር እርድና አሪፊነት ሥልጡንነት የሚመሥላቸው ትግሬዎች የገዛ ወገናቸውን ከድተው ካማራ ከኦሮሞ ጋር ሲሰሩ ሲቀጥፉ ሲዘርፉ የነበሩ ባንዳዎች ዛሬ ትግራዋይ ሀገር ወዳድ ነን ይላሉ፥፥ይህ ሁሉ ዳግመኛ ለዝርፊያ ራሳቸውን ለማመቻቸት ለመዝረፍ የትግራይ ህዝብን ለማራቆት ለመበዝበዝ ነው፤ገንዘብ በሕዝብ ስም እየለመኑ ለማሸሽ ያራስን ሃብት ለማደለብ ታስቦ የተደረገ የመሠሪዎች ሥራ ነው፤፤ለሕዝባቹ እንደማታስቡማ የሚያሳየው ትናንት ሕይወታቸውን ለሞት አሳልፈው ሰጥተው አካላቸውን የገበሩ አይናቸውን ያጡ መላ አካላቸውን መሥዋዕት ያደረጉ ለሃላፊዎቻቸው ሲሉ ራሳቸውን ለአደጋ የሰጡ ብሎም የተሰው የሠራዊቱ አባላትም ሆኑ ወገኖቻቸው ሲረዱ አይታይም፤፤ይልቁንም በተሰደደው እና በሠራዊቱ ስም እየለመኑ የግል አካውንት ማደለብ እና መዝረፍ የዘመኑ ምርጥ ስታይል እስከሚመሥል ድረስ ባንዳ ዘራፊ ተልካሻ ትግሬ ሲያጧጡፈው ይሰማል ይስተዋላል ፤ከብልፅግና ጋር ሁናቹ ከውጭ ሀገራት የገባ ሥንዴ ሌላም ሌላም እህል እየሰረቃቹ በመሸጥ በረሀብ እንዲያልቁ ያደረጋችሗቸው ህፃናት፤ሕመምተኞች አረጋውያን ቁጥር ቤቱ እና የተቀበለቻቸው መሬት ይቁጠሯቸው፥፥ይህ ሁሉ በረሀ ብ ያለቀው ወገናችን ልጆቹን፥አባቾቹን እህናቾቹን ናንተ የቅርብም ሆነ የሩቅ ዘመዶቹንል ለለእናንተ ሹሹማምንት የየህውሃት ባለሥልጣናት ህይወት ዋስትናለመሆን የናንተን ሀብ እ ንብረት ሥልልጣን ለመጠበቅ ለማስጠበቅ የሰዋ የተሰዋ የሰጠ ነው፥፥ከዳተኞች፤፤የጥቂት ባንዳ ህውሃት መሪዎች እና ባንዳ ደጋፊዎቻቸው የውድቀት ቀን ቀርቧል ያፍጥንልን፥፥ከነርሱ የበለጠ ባንዳ ከዳተኛ ዘራፊ ላሳር ነው፥የሌባ አይነደረቅ መልሶ ልብ ያደርቅ እንዲሉ ሌላው ባንዳ ሲሉ ቂት እንኳ ለከት ሀፍረት የለባቸው፤፤ዳግመኛ የትግራይ ህዝብ ለእናንተ አይሞትም ፤፤ሃገራችን ለቃቹ እንደ ሌሎቹ ጓዶቻቹ ዳን ሂዳቹ ለምኑ ዙምባቤ ይሻላችሗል ከመንጌ ጋር ተደደሩ፥፥ሁሉ ህውሃት መሪዎች ስልጣናቸውን ይልቀቁ ፥፥ድል ለሠፊው ሕዝብ፤፤
    Stop killing TDF members who are returning to their famillies!!! ፋኖ ይውደም !! Fanno out of all Tigrayan Territories, including Welkayot, Raya, Humera etc

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