By G. Amare


The purpose of this article is to provide analysis of the intricate political dynamics and formidable challenges currently confronting Tigray. It explores the myriad factors that exacerbate the matter: deeply rooted beliefs, finger pointing, unsubstantiated accusations, divisive rhetoric, and the direct and indirect involvement of foreign elements.  Furthermore, the article addresses the actions that both the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and opposition parties should seriously take into consideration to get Tigray out of the wood: formulate a road map that articulates a coherent vision and offers a practical and sustainable solution. It also underscores the paramount importance of refraining from tactics that sow division, while emphasizing the necessity of prioritizing the safety and security of the people of Tigray over a personal gain and the pursuit of power.

To begin with, let’s clarify what the term “political conundrum” entails.  The term can be defined [1] as a complex or perplexing issue or problem within the realm of politics that typically involves a situation where conflicting interests or factors make it difficult to find a straightforward solution or to understand the best course of action. It can range from policy dilemmas and governance challenges to strategic or ethical issues within the political arena. And, therefore, warrants careful consideration of the matter at stake and making decisions and taking actions based on a thorough understanding of a relevant information and assessing different options and their potential consequences before reaching a conclusion.

So to say, Tigray finds itself in a political conundrum in the midst of the ongoing crisis. Unfortunately, the landscape has become rife with negative political tactics, finger-pointing, accusations, and appeals to public emotions, particularly anger and frustration. It is not atypical for any political party to vie for public support by positioning itself against an incumbent party. However, it is equally crucial to consider the long-term consequences of any Machiavellian tactics. Such tactics may yield short-term political gains, but the repercussions can extend far beyond an immediate political score. Particularly, the impact of such may be highly pronounced on Tigray’s already fragile condition, which is not a difficult riddle to understand.

In the aftermath of a destructive genocidal war, it is highly anticipated unmet expectations, pervasive frustrations, anger, and the lingering trauma of warfare will subsequently give rise to dysfunctional government systems and a corrupt bureaucracy, exacerbating a cascade of challenges. Reversing the challenge that Tigray is facing today demands for innovative ideas, strategic thinking, and a big dose of wisdom. Building trust, fostering inclusive governance, and addressing grievances will take time, patience, and sustained efforts. And cornering or blaming one party is unlikely to be a sufficient or effective strategy for resolving the challenges. It cannot be reduced to assigning blame to TPLF alone as this simply oversimplifies the complex dynamics which is influenced and characterized by multiple internal and external factors and actors. Some of which are described below.

Long-Standing Beliefs

Long-standing beliefs can have a profound impact on peoples’ ability to adapt to changes because such beliefs shape their values, views, and norms, and influence them how they perceive and respond to change. The fact is that any change runs into some form of resistance. One  major reason is that people think they will lose something of value as a result.[2]People may also resist change when they do not understand its implications and perceive that it might cost them much more than they will gain.[3] It is often difficult to convince people with fixed beliefs unless some strategic persuasion skills that may include establishing common interests and framing perspectives in a positive light are applied.[4]  In reality, change is a challenging process regardless of the circumstances, and particularly difficult to implement in an environment that has deeply embedded values, norms, and assumptions that are solidly grounded in an enviable history and associated with profound and long-term consequences on society’s long-standing beliefs.[5],[6] Thus, attempting to change such beliefs without respect, sensitivity, and deep understanding and critical analysis of their significance may be met with resistance.

“It follows that an acceleration in the rate of change will result in an increasing need for reorganization. Reorganization is usually feared, because it means disturbance of the status quo, a threat to people’s vested interests… and an upset to established ways of doing things. For these reasons, needed reorganization is often deferred, with a resulting loss in effectiveness and an increase in costs.”[7].

Despite TPLF’s leadership failures, the people of Tigray still have long-standing beliefs, perceptions, emotional attachments, and a sense of belonging to the causes that TPLF stood for. They might exhibit resistance to any efforts to introduce a new change, as they could view it as contradicting their ingrained beliefs and established perceptions. Whether one likes it or not, the relationship between the people of Tigray and TPLF is peculiar, and the bond is not easy to break for practical and historical reasons.  However, while the fact on the ground is a horse of different color, TPLF’s opponents are always seen underestimating these relationships and bonds. Rather, they seem to focus on coercive measures in order to accelerate acceptance by imposing their political perspectives. They seem to have little cognizant to the complex interplay between such long-standing beliefs and a political change.

It is very essential for political parties, seeking to navigate and implement political changes and transitions, to realize the reality on the ground. Established beliefs, traditions, and perceptions should not be underestimated. They should rather be appreciated and respected. It is critical to accept the truth that a successful change often involves a gradual shift in attitudes and behaviors over generations, rather than immediate transformation. Providing education and raising awareness with great patience, persistent work, and self-compassion may help see a change over time. [8] Repeated communications of ideas help people to see the need for and the logic of a change.[9] Acknowledging that change takes time is essential. Otherwise, rushing the process can lead to backlash.

“There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things…. Partly from the incredulity of mankind, who do not truly believe in anything new until they have had actual experience of it.”- Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince.  

TPLF’s Political Culture

TPLF’s efforts in Tigray has been drawn into institutionalizing a political culture of single-party control and dominance. It has implemented a rigid policy over the political landscape, limiting political freedoms, suppressing opposition voices, and tightly controlling the media in Tigray. This stifled political pluralism, contributing to a lack of political competition and choice. And TPLF has shown little interest in changing and adapting to evolving political dynamics. TPLF seems unable or unwilling to understand that in a dynamic political landscape, a party that does not adapt to changing circumstances may lose relevance and support from people who are looking for solutions to contemporary challenges and developments.

TPLF repeatedly has failed to address emerging issues and respond to the needs and concerns of the people effectively and willingly. It has failed to recognize the fact that lack of adaptability can also lead to a state of political stagnation, where it remains stuck in outdated policies or political platforms that no longer resonate with the people. TPLF neglects to use the political dynamics that presents opportunities to galvanize support and maintain its influence. It is struggling to appeal to a younger generation who have different priorities, values, and expectations and may seek alternatives that are more responsive to their needs and aspirations by appreciating that societal changes, demographic shifts, and evolving public opinion can render certain party positions or platforms obsolete.

All in all, the perception is that people are gradually losing hopes on TPLF because of its sluggish responsiveness and ineffectiveness. TPLF is facilitating the decline of its longtime political influences to a point where it may be difficult to rebuild trust and credibility. There is a fear from its members and sympathizers that this situation can possibly lead to internal divisions and conflicts within TPLF as different factions may have differing views on direction and strategies.

Therefore, if TPLF has the desire to remain functional, effective, relevant, and influential in Tigray’s political landscape, it should engage in serious self-assessment, adapt its policies and platforms to current challenges, and respond to the evolving needs and expectations by being flexible, open to new ideas, capable of evolving with the times, and thriving in dynamic political environments. It should take stringent measures against corruption. It is a must for TPLF to come back all afresh and serve its people in full scale capacity, capability, competency, and with selfless integrity and determination that it had reflected to topple down the Derg regime, seemingly impossible win, after 17 years of armed struggle.

Hate Politics 

This is a form of political engagement widely observed in today’s Ethiopia and Tigray, as well. It is a type of political behavior that often involves using derogatory language, spreading false information, and stoking divisiveness, fear, anger, and hostility toward specific individuals or groups. The result is often harmful. It erodes societies’ social cohesion, undermines democratic institutions, and fosters an undemocratic culture of intolerance. Hate politics is detrimental to the very principles of democracy which relies on openness, peaceful coexistence, and respect to established rules of laws, and constructive critics as opposed to combative and destructive political discourses and blame games.

Everyone knows what the outcome of Ethiopia’s 27 years of hate politics has been. There were widespread and unfounded allegations, distribution of fabricated lies, discriminatory claims, divisive, and inflammatory campaigns to fuel animosity and mobilize support against TPLF and the people of Tigray. This ultimately has escalated to declaration of premeditated, systematic, and barbaric acts of genocidal war with the intention to wipe out the entire people of Tigray.

Meddling of Various Groups

The political situation in Tigray is complex and characterized by a range of actors and factors, including historical tensions and regional politics. Efforts to create divisions or fractures within Tigray’s political landscape involve various parties, including the government of Eritrea, Amhara elites, the Ethiopian federal government, and many foreign countries that have vested and conflicting economic and geopolitical interests.

The Eritrean Government: The government of Eritrea’s desire has always been to wipe out TPLF and Tigrayan elites who are seen as obstructors or threats toward the despotic leader, Isaias Afwerki’s dream of creating a deviant Eritreanism through social engineering and implementing economic hegemony not only over Ethiopia but also over the entire Horn of Africa region-controlling, manipulation, trade dominance, and financial piracy-to serve his ego. To Isaias’s calculation, his aspiration is contingent upon the annihilation of the TPLF and the people of Tigray. That was the main reason why it was fully involved in the genocidal war that took the lives of over a million Tigrayans and vandalized infrastructures and pillaged public and private properties.

The Amhara Fanos: the Amhara Fanos have been involved with full heart in Tigray’s war. Their plan A has been to materialize their ambition to reinstate a unitary government system and put Ethiopia under their centralized power control. To implement this project, they have unfortunately opted the venue of disintegrating Tigray and destroying its socioeconomic and political integrities. They always undermine and consider the other Ethiopians to be politically insignificant and easy to manipulate, suppress, and assimilate in absence of Tigrayans. Their other cynical ambition is to unconstitutionally expand their administrative territory by invading areas of Western and Southern Tigray. To do this, they have used the war as an opportunity to commit crimes of mass atrocities over three years. They have barbarically killed, imprisoned, tortured, widely involved in cruel sexual violations, and forcefully evicted Tigrayans from their places and brought new settlers from Amhara region to change the demography of the areas they have occupied with help of Eritrean troops and the Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF).

The Federal Government of Ethiopia: The federal government of Ethiopia has played a central role in the ongoing genocidal war. First, it framed the genocidal war as a law enforcement operation to deliberately misguide the international community. Second, it served as the main supplier of high-tech weapons of war to the Eritrean and Amhara forces. Third, it has disinformed the international community by distributing nonstop lies and fake news. Forth, it has applied the “Shock and Awe” military strategy to overwhelm, intimidate, morally and psychologically defeat, and kill the people of Tigray. Fifth, it has indiscriminately imprisoned many thousands of Tigrayans, from all walks of life, in concentration camps, and tortured and killed several.  Sixth, it has imposed a complete siege on Tigray, restricting access to essential goods, humanitarian aid, and completely shut down all means of communications to cause catastrophic deaths, humanitarian crisis, including food shortages, displacement, and reports of massive atrocities.

Even after the signing of the Pretoria peace deal, these three forces have been seen coordinating their efforts and jointly acting not only to influence or shape the political landscape in Tigray to their overt and covert goals but also to continue perpetrating crimes of  mass atrocities. They have been openly campaigning to foster divisions by tearing down TPLF’s political roles, damaging its images, and belittling its accomplishments.

Economic and Geopolitical Interests: Ethiopia’s political landscape has been influenced by a variety of foreign countries due to its strategic location, economic potential, and geopolitical significance in the Horn of Africa. Countries that have vested economic and geopolitical interests in Ethiopia have played key roles in orchestrating and ending the power of TPLF dominated coalition: the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). It was unfortunate meddling for these countries to support Abiy Ahmed’s coming to power solely for the sake of a few greedy individuals interests and a misguided and ill-fated policy directions. Their lack of moral compass has cut short Ethiopia’s economic growth. Their blinded missteps have stifled and switched off the spark of light to the path of democratization process.

In a nutshell, the Tigray war has attracted international attention and involvement, with various countries and organizations taking sides or attempting to meddle and mediate. Therefore, understanding the complexity of Ethiopia’s dirty politics and foreign involvements is indeed crucial for anyone who has a genuine concern. All parties in Tigray need to delve into the context to understand the root causes of the genocidal war and the grievances of various groups. The parties should seriously and analytically assess the situation of these intertwined economic and geopolitical political landscapes.

No one denies the fact that the war in Tigray has led to a catastrophic humanitarian crisis including extrajudicial killings, barbaric sexual violations and gang rapes, indiscriminate imprisonments, physical and phycological tortures, miseries, high level severity of food shortages, ethnic cleansing, forced evictions and massive displacements, shutting down of all means of communication channels and social serves. Security and safety also remain to be of a critical concern. The war has totally disrupted all economic activities and social relationships. All parties are highly anticipated to deeply focus on assessing the consequences and figuring out practical solutions. They are expected to work on a plan. They should find a way on how to address these issues while working toward a more stable political environment and need to develop a clear and comprehensive long-term vision for Tigray, taking the complexities of the matter into consideration. This vision should be inclusive and aimed at achieving lasting peace and development.

In short, all parties in Tigray should critically assess and understand the multifaceted nature of the war, considering historical, political, international, and humanitarian factors. By doing so, they can develop informed strategies for engagement and contribute to a peaceful and sustainable resolution of the Tigray conflict.

TPLF and the Path Ahead

There is no question that TPLF is currently facing significant challenges. Unfortunately, the current political situation in Tigray appears to be in harmony with the assertions and agendas propagated by Amhara elites and the Eritrean Government: dividing Tigrayans into smaller, fractured segments in order to annihilate them or render their political role in the region meaningless.

Tigray’s opposition parties are accusing and finger pointing at TPLF for every mishap in Tigray. In order to reverse the politics of finger-pointing, and reclaim public trust, TPLF must figure out a way forward. It should urgently consider the following steps:

Open and Inclusive Dialogue: TPLF should demonstrate a commitment to inclusive dialogue and reconciliation within itself and others. Engaging with a wide range of stakeholders, including political opponents, civil society, and community leaders, is crucial to build trust and find common ground.

Genuinely Concede to Past Mistakes: A crucial step in moving forward is acknowledging past mistakes and addressing any grievances that may have fueled public anger and frustration. Taking responsibility for past actions, whether perceived or real, is an important step toward.

Inclusive Public Engagement: TPLF should actively engage with the public through regular communication, public forums, and consultations. It should genuinely listen to the concerns and aspirations of the people and be responsive to their needs. TPLF should be willing and open the political space for inclusive and diverse ideas. This includes incorporating voices from various political groups, and promoting policies that benefit all the people.

Process of Transparency and Accountability: Implementing transparent and accountable practices is essential and appropriate. TPLF should openly share progress reports with its people regarding why the practical implementation of Pretoria peace deal has been delayed. It should openly discuss the challenges with the people. TPLF should prioritize anti-corruption measures, ensure that public resources are used responsibly, and establish mechanisms for accountability while showing its determination to calling for justice and independent investigation of the genocidal war, and providing and supporting essential services. Demonstrating a commitment to improving the lives of the people can help ease public anger and frustration. TPLF should actively engage the people in its efforts to address the challenges it is currently facing.

Acknowledge the Importance of Transitioning to Multi-Party Democracy: TPLF should undergo a significant transformation by moving away from its long-standing belief in one-party dominance. Embracing multi-party democracy and facilitating the development of a competitive political space in Tigray can foster greater accountability and responsiveness.

Long-Term Vision: TPLF should articulate a clear and inspiring long-term vision for the future of Tigray. This vision should be based on principles of inclusivity, social justice, and economic prosperity, and should resonate with the aspirations of the people.

Opposition Parties:  Wide Gap in Advancing Civil Discourses

The Tigray war has attracted international attention and involvement, with various countries and organizations taking sides or attempting to mediate. Tigray’s political parties should be aware of these dynamics. Security remains a critical issue in Tigray and opposition parties are highly expected to contribute towards formulating policies that ensure the safety and well-being of the people and facilitate the recovery and reconstruction of war destroyed Tigray.

However, Tigray’s opposition parties seem to forget that one of Tigray’s current and pressing challenges is reclaiming the status quo ante.  As of today, they are seen engaged in finger-pointing and hate politics rather than focusing on critical analysis of the multifaceted nature of the ongoing crisis. There is greater need to understand the root causes of the genocidal war that has effectively shut down all economic and social activities in Tigray. It is a necessity step for them to develop clear and comprehensive short-term and long-term vision, considering the complexities of the political landscape. By doing so, they can develop informed strategies and sustainable solutions for the challenges that Tigray is facing today. Otherwise, the politics of finger pointing can only exacerbate the situation and hinder efforts to find a genuine, peaceful, and inclusive solutions.

It is unfortunate that the political landscape in Tigray is deficient of civility and meaningful political dialogues. The situation is indeed unhealthy. There is a need to seriously address the wide gap in advancing civility. There is a sense of urgency to cultivate a culture of civilized discourse to signify the importance of promoting constructive and productive conversations within the realm of politics. Civil discourse highlights the need for discussions and debates that are marked by respect and decorum. In a civil discourse, individuals engage in dialogue without resorting to personal attacks, insults, or inflammatory language. Constructive political discourse underscores the significance of political conversations that contribute to problem-solving, idea generation, and policy development. It focuses on the merits of ideas, proposals, and arguments rather than tearing down opponents. It encourages participants to offer well-reasoned arguments, consider evidence, and seek common ground.

The principles of a civil discourse should be practiced as a culture. Such principles should not be sporadic occurrences but rather ingrained norms within the political arena in Tigray.  Civility calls for a fundamental shift in how political discourse is conducted, with the understanding that this transformation is not just desirable but absolutely necessary for a democratic society. Without such a culture of civility, the consequences can be detrimental. When political discourse lacks civility and constructiveness, it can lead to polarization, gridlock, and a breakdown in governance. In extreme cases, it can even contribute to social unrest or violence.

Opposition parties should prioritize their efforts in addressing the underlying issues and advance inclusive and civilized political dialogues in Tigray. It is beneficial for them to assess, reassess, and pay attention to following issues:

Divisiveness Hinders Unity: Finger-pointing and hate politics only deepen divisions among Tigrayans. This opens the door of opportunity to adversaries of Tigray who always have the desire to fragment or annihilate Tigray and are acutely seeking internal divisions within Tigray’s political landscape. It is an open secret that Tigray’s foes always have the desire to exploit every available avenue to create internal divisions among Tigrayans. The internal strife in Tigray affords them the opportunity to evade their responsibilities, such as the execution of the Pretoria Agreement.

A united and resolute Tigrayan front plays a pivotal role in advancing the enduring interests of Tigray. A divided society is less likely to achieve its goals and negotiate effectively with stakeholders. It is not hard to envision the emergence of vibrant and competitive political parties flourishing within a stable Tigray.

Political polarization: One of the most significant long-term impacts of political parties that rely on accusations is the deepening of political polarization which often emphasizes on creating fragmented society, divisions, reinforcing the “us vs. them” mentality which hinders collaboration and compromise among parties, making it difficult to address the pressing humanitarian and governance challenges in Tigray today. The result is often gridlock and a lack of progress on critical matters.

Decline in Civility: Heated rhetoric and personal attacks contribute to a decline in civility in political discourse. This decline makes it challenging for individuals from different political backgrounds to engage in constructive dialogue and find common solutions for peace and stability. A hostile political environment can deter the collaborative efforts required to bring an end to the crisis and ensure lasting peace.

Short-Term Gain: Parties focused on finger-pointing may prioritize short-term political gains over long-term solutions. They may focus on scoring political points rather than addressing the enduring challenges faced by Tigray. This short-term thinking can lead to policy decisions that lack foresight and fail to provide lasting solutions to humanitarian, governance, security, and safety concerns. While political parties may occasionally prioritize short-term gains, such a brand of politics is typically observed in nations characterized by durable stability and well-established democratic institutions.

Ethical Responsibility and Accountability: All parties in Tigray should have an ethical responsibility to prioritize the well-being of the people. Engaging in hate politics and divisive tactics can harm the very people they claim to serve. Excessive accusations and finger-pointing can obscure genuine issues of accountability. When everything is framed as a political attack, it can be challenging to distinguish between valid concerns and baseless claims. This can hinder efforts to hold leaders accountable for their actions during the crisis and its aftermath.

Humanitarian Consequences: The ongoing genocidal war in Tigray has already resulted in catastrophic humanitarian crises, with millions still in need of assistance. Hate politics and divisive rhetoric can divert attention away from addressing the pressing humanitarian needs of the population.

Confirmation Bias: Opposition parties in Tigray exemplify a strong predisposition towards confirmation bias, wherein they tend to seek, interpret, and recall information in a manner that bolsters their existing disapproval to TPLF. This inclination often leads them to selectively perceive events, reinforcing their preconceived positions rather than engaging in critical and pragmatic assessments of the complex challenges. Tigray’s opposition parties have demonstrated a propensity for disparaging, dismissing or belittling TPLF’s achievements, or purposely tend to invest their resources in cursing TPLF for its wrongdoings or shortcomings. In doing so, they inadvertently foster echo chambers, where like-minded individuals bolster each other’s beliefs. Within these echo chambers, they selectively interpret information to confirm their existing convictions, making them more susceptible to misinformation. Consequently, they become resistant to accepting information that challenges their established views, and their scrutiny of information aligning with their belief’s wanes. Collectively, confirmation bias results in biased reasoning and a distorted comprehension of the multifaceted issues at hand. Even when presented with compelling evidence showcasing the positive changes brought about by the TPLF, it remains a formidable challenge for opponents to restrain from rebuking TPLF.

Public Trust Erosion: When parties prioritize attacking their opponents over serving the public interest, it can lead to widespread cynicism and disengagement from the political process. Citizens may become disillusioned and skeptical, believing that politicians are more interested in their own agendas than in genuinely addressing the urgent needs of the people affected by the crisis.

Inappropriate Use of Resources: Parties that focus on finger-pointing often spend more time and energy on attacking their opponents than engaging in substantive policy discussions. This lack of substantive debate can hinder the development of well-informed public policies crucial for recovery.

Appeal to the People of Tigray

There is no room for doubt when it comes to recognizing the incredible qualities that typically define Tigrayans. They exhibit unwavering resilience, strength, unshakable integrity, and a profound consideration for others. These qualities aren’t just admirable; they’re the bedrock upon which trust, cooperation, and positive change can thrive. This appeal implores the people of Tigray to harness these collective traits in undertaking a comprehensive examination of the allegations against the TPLF. It’s vital to subject these claims to rigorous scrutiny and careful consideration to ensure that we rely on concrete evidence and nuanced analysis rather than accepting simplistic accusations at face value. Understanding the historical, political, and social context surrounding these allegations is crucial in shedding light on the motivations and actions of all parties involved.

Painting the TPLF as a sole instigator or the root cause of the Tigray crisis is, in reality, a dangerously oversimplified perspective. It’s a viewpoint that lacks critical thinking, deep understanding, careful consideration, or sufficient supporting information but rather built upon misconceptions and unfounded claims. When tackling significant issues that demand thorough examination, it is imperative that we lean on well-founded evidence and thoughtful analysis rather than spreading misinformation that may not accurately capture the complexities of the crisis. The genocidal war in Tigray extends beyond the actions of any single party.

It is crucial to acknowledge that the removal of the TPLF from Ethiopia’s power structure did not solely result from its undemocratic, suppressive, authoritarian, and corruptive history. Nor was it solely due to its inability to implement socio-economic and infrastructure development in Ethiopia. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors behind this change, we must delve into the pages of history.

For example, consider the regime change in Chile in 1973, when General Augusto Pinochet orchestrated a military coup to oust Salvador Allende, leading to severe human rights abuses, including torture, imprisonment, and executions. Similarly, the coup in Argentina in 1976 under General Jorge Rafael Videla ushered in the “Dirty War,” marked by abductions, torture, and disappearances of perceived threats to the regime. Turn the page to read about the Russian constitutional crisis in 1993, where Boris Yeltsin declared a state of emergency and deployed tanks in Moscow to dissolve the parliament, resulting in casualties and significant damage. Recall the rise of General Suharto and the ousting of Sukarno in Indonesia. Delve into the chilling account of the 1989 “Tiananmen Square Massacre,” in Beijing, China. Many such historical instances in Europe, Asia, and South America reveal the complexities of political reforms and regime changes. Behind all these tragic and harrowing episodes of atrocities in history, you will find a common denominator.

Finally, ask yourselves why the world remained silent about the tyranny in Eritrea, a nation devoid of democracy and no rule of law, while widely, persistently, and actively campaigned to oust TPLF/EPRDF—a coalition that brought remarkable economic growth, improved healthcare, and education, and implemented monumental infrastructure projects. This question underscores the need for a nuanced, thoughtful approach to understanding the intricate dynamics at play. It is only through a deep and informed understanding of history, context, and evidence-based analysis, we can strive for justice, peace, and a brighter future for all.

In conclusion, in the context of the Tigray crisis, it is imperative that all political parties consider the long-term consequences of their actions. While negative tactics may offer short-term political advantages, they can hinder the region’s recovery, stability, and prospects for democratic governance. A balanced approach that combines criticism with a commitment to finding common ground and advancing policy solutions is essential for addressing the humanitarian crisis, fostering reconciliation, and ensuring a brighter future for the people of Tigray.


[1] This definition was generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI)

[2] Kotter, John P. & Schlesinger, Leonard A. Choosing Strategies for Change. Accessed on September 4, 2023.

[3] Ibd.

[4] Accessed on September 4, 2023.

[5] Cancialosi, Chris. Navigating Change In Deeply Rooted Organizations. Accessed on September 4, 2023.

[6] Accessed on September 4, 2023.

[7] Marvin Bower and C. Lee Walton, Jr., “Gearing a Business to the Future,” in Challenge to Leadership (The Conference Board, 1973), as cited by Kotter, John P. & Schlesinger, Leonard A. Choosing Strategies for Change. Accessed on September 4, 2023.

[8] Accessed on September 4, 2023.

[9]Kotter, John P. & Schlesinger, Leonard A. Choosing Strategies for Change. Accessed on September 4, 2023.

By aiga